Can you name it?
It doubles+ the risk of eight of the ten leading causes of death, which account for about 75% of the $3Trillion Americans spend on healthcare annually. It explains half of learning and behavior problems in children. It is prevalent in all sectors of society, at home and around the world. It meets the criteria for a public health crisis. Can you name it?
It is ACEs — Adverse Childhood Experiences. I’ve written here before about ACEs. I’ve said that anyone working in maternal-child health, or early childhood education, K-12 education, child care, chronic disease, or health literacy needs to know about the lasting destructive power of ACEs.
But, after participating in the 30th Zero To Three national conference held last week here in Seattle, I understand ACEs are not just another related issue we should be tracking. It is time to acknowledge and address ACEs as the biggest barrier to personal and public health, and to improving heath literacy. As keynote speaker, pediatrician Nadine Burke Harris says, “ We — all of us — are the solution.”
Work in all the many fields that aim to build a strong foundation for healthy child development is futile where ACEs cause that foundation to crumble and leave children physically, mentally, and emotionally predisposed to impaired cognitive and emotional development, and to adulthood defined by diabetes, obesity, heart and lung diseases, cancers. In the context of health literacy, unacknowledged ACEs must be viewed as a looming barrier to health across the lifecourse, to literacy, and to effective participation in healthcare and society. It is a multigenerational problem. A mother with unaddressed ACEs cannot buffer her child from ACEs.
Early years last a lifetime, for better or worse, by default or by design. ACEs are the worse-by-default part that Zero To Three mantra. By definition an Adverse Childhood Experience occurs in childhood (< age 18) and the person remembers it as an adult. Here are the nine types of ACEs:
* physical abuse
* sexual abuse
* emotional abuse
* mental illness of a household member
* problematic drinking or alcoholism of a household member
* illegal street or prescription drug use by a household member
* divorce or separation of a parent
* domestic violence towards a parent
* incarceration of a household member
Why ACEs matter so much for so long
These are more than unhappy memories. A baby’s brain is only partially (about 25%) developed at birth so that it can be wired to enable the baby to survive in the environment into which s/he is born. Babies absorb everything they see, hear, feel and otherwise experience. Those experiences tell the brain what to expect and how to be ready for it. By Baby’s first birthday, brain wiring is 70% complete, by age 3, it’s 85% wired. So the earlier the experience, the greater and more lasting it’s impact.
With repeated ACEs, four or more of the listed experiences, or the same experience repeated frequently, the brain and all the body systems get stuck on high alert; living in a crouch, always expecting something bad to happen. The Fight, Flee or Freeze mechanism is designed as an emergency response system. When danger is past, it is supposed to switch off so the body returns to a normal relaxed state. When it is stuck in the On position, little energy and attention are available for learning and cognitive development. Self-regulation becomes a strident challenge; behavioral problems ensue. Eventually, the wear and tear of constant stress on the body’s systems manifest as non-communicable adult disease. The leading causes of adult deaths worldwide have their origins in early development. In ACEs.
Resources & Reference:
This from Beginnings Guides Tools for Serving Families http://www.beginningsguides.com/Tools-for-Serving-Families.html
Find your ACE Score: See how ACEs have affected you. Use the questions to generate a reflective conversation with a mother about her ACEs and their impacts on her life and parenting. Testing shows the questions do not spur trauma or need for professional help. Download the questionnaire
Read the research: www.acestudy.org
View Dr. Burke Harris’ TED Talk “How childhood trauma affects health across a lifetime”
Next: How we can use information about Adverse Childhood Experiences