“Give it to them briefly so they will read it, clearly so they will appreciate it, picturesquely
so they will remember it and above all accurately so they will be guided by its light.”
Pulitzer is talking about printed information, and so am I. Previously in this space, we said
powerful information giving starts with a question along the lines of “Would you like some
information?” The question positions the learner as an able information seeker in charge of
her own learning; it positions the informer as a non-judgmental resource rather than a
know-it-all rescuer. Still, his recipe for clear communication applies to spoken information,
Here we focus on keeping the information brief. Brief means short – short words in short
sentences in short lines and short paragraphs in short documents. Pulitzer notes that if it
is anything other than short, your client is not likely to read it. Assume that the learner
is busy, stressed and can use only what is immediately applicable to the problem she has
now. Focus on what she needs to do to cope, recover or otherwise solve her current problem.
Then give her the critical minimum information she needs to do that.
Use common short words that the learner hears and uses in everyday conversation. This
means no medical jargon, no acronyms, no polysyllabic words like polysyllabic – having
3+syllables. (To count the syllables in a word, hold your chin as you say it. Each time your
chin moves, that’s a syllable.) Choose materials written in a conversational tone –it should
sound like something you would actually say to an individual sitting in front you. The mind
is most familiar with conversation, so it can process conversational information most readily.
A short sentence contains about 15 words or less. It expresses only one thought. Short
sentences are especially important to persons with low literacy skills. Some would say that
is most American adults; our average reading skill is 7th to 8th grade level. An unskilled
learner reads or hears one word at a time; so by the time you get to the end of a long sentence
like this one, it is easy to forget what it is about. Readers are most likely to recall the last few
words in the sentence, so place the context (the part they already know) first and new
information second. For example, say “When you have a headache, call the doctor”. The learner
will not need to remember the part about the headache, so she can focus on the new information
– call the doctor.
Compare These Two Sentences
Smoking during pregnancy can cause prematurity, low birth weight and failure to thrive.
A baby growing in a smoky womb may be born too early or too small to thrive.
From Beginnings Pregnancy Guide p4
The first sentence contains 12 words compared to 17 in the second sentence. But it has more
syllables. The first sentence requires a high level of background knowledge and specialized
vocabulary. It is concept dense; that is, it contains several complex ideas (smoking, pregnancy,
prematurity, low birth weight and failure to thrive.) It focuses on the learners’ bad behavior,
so it may invoke resistance. The second sentence uses short common words. It focuses on the
learners’ primary interest – the baby. So the second sentence is more informative and more
A short paragraph contains two to five sentences about one idea. The break between paragraphs
cues the reader to get ready for a new idea. Group two or three related paragraphs under a
subhead that expresses the main idea.
We read by starting at the left and moving to the right. At the end of a line of type, the eye
moves back to where it started and then down to the next line. This is why it is hard to keep
your place and read fluently when the lines are longer than about 35 characters. A character
is a letter, punctuation mark or space.
A long document appears difficult or overwhelming. It feels like a hard duty. A short document
appears manageable. It makes the tasks described seem doable. It feels like a gift. This is why
the Beginnings Guides present pregnancy and parenting information in a series of booklets
rather than in a single book. When you present information in short segments it allows the
possibility of small successes along the way and encourages the learner to keep going.
Also consider small documents. We presented mothers the first booklet of the Beginnings Pregnancy Guide
in two formats: 8.5x11 and 5.5x8.5. Although the larger format used more white space and larger
type, the testers chose the small size two-to-one. They said it “looked easier”, and seemed
“less like homework.”